Tudor Coastal Policy, 1539-1603

Year
Policy
Jan 1510 Bill passed in Lords for limiting the loading and unloading of merchandise to ports, and not in creeks.1'Billa concernens Onerationes sive Exonerationes Mercium sive Merchandisarum in portubus, et non in privatis locis vocatis le Cryks'. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol1/p5e#h3-0004%5B/mfn%5D
1530s 1531 An Act for the amending and Maintenance of the Havens and Ports of Plymouth, Dartmouth, Teignmouth, Falmouth and Fowey, in the Counties of Devon and Cornwall;123 Henry VIII c. 8 1533 Dover Harbour petition; 1535 An Act for the Preservation of Havens and Ports in the Counties of Devon and Cornwall.227 Henry VIII, c. 23
Incorporation of maritime boroughs.3Examine the extent to which maritime boroughs were incorporated as opposed to inland boroughs, and whether such incorporations followed – or rather anticipated – upturns in trade, harbour repairs, or port improvements: see 'Key', in Martin Weinbaum, ed., British Borough Charters 1307–1660, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) pp.xxix-lxviii.
1539 Encouragement of Exeter as a port by the Compulsory Purchase legislation first enacted in this year.
1539 Surveys of ports and havens for military purposes.
1548 Proposal for a new cut to mend Sandwich Haven.4Kent History Centre Sa/AH1
1549 Commons condidered a 'Bill for the Amending of Camber, and the Havens at Wynchelsey and Rye'.
25, 28 Nov 1553 Commons considered a 'Bill for Havens and Creeks appointed for Lading of Merchandises'.5https://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol1/p31e#h3-0008; https://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol1/p31a%5B/mfn%5D. This appears to have been a reconsideration of policy mooted in 1510.
1555 Commons considered a 'Bill for the Haven of Teignmouth in Devon', and a 'Bill, that Sallcombe in Devon shall be a Haven'.
Sep 1558 Proclamation for the licensing of shipping and mariners, to be enforced by local officials along the sea-coasts.5Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #450.
28 Apr 1559 Proclamation authorising foreign trade by any vessels of under 80 tons only.6Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #456.
1559 Proposal that the Staple be moved to England, for ‘the reparation and maintenance of the havens and ports of the realm’.7Considerations delivered to the Parliament, 1559. Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Most Hon. the Marquis of Salisbury, Preserved at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. Ed. S. R. Scargill-Bird. Vol. 1: 1306-1571. London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 162
1559 Act establishing system of ‘Legal Quays’. This limited the places authorised for foreign import and export, and eventually (in 1592) restricted the freedom of coastal shipping from unrecognised quays.8An Acte lymiting the tymes for layeng on Lande Marchandise from beyonde the Seas, and touching Customes for Sweete Wynes 1 Eliz. I, c.11; Stephen Gadd, 'Illegal quays: Elizabethan customs reforms and suppression of the coastal trade of Christchurch, Hampshire', The Economic History Review, 71, No.3 (2018), pp.727-746, 738.
1559 Legislation which among other things prohibited foreign export by English Hoys.9An Acte for the shipping in Englishe Botomes 1 Eliz. I, c.13.
1558-59 Several proclamations regarding the freedom of mariners, in connection with manning the Navy.10Robert Steele, Tudor and Stuart Proclamations: 1485-1714, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), Nos. 483,487,489,497,506. Also prohibition of sale of ships to foreigners: ibid., No. 514.
6 Jan 1560 A survey of ships in 'sundry ports' had earlier been ordered, perhaps resulting in the list of ships of over 100 tons.11Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #465.
1 Jul 1561 Vice-admirals instructed to take inquest of mariners and of vessels over 16 tons.12Robert Steele, Tudor and Stuart Proclamations: 1485-1714, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), No. 548. This Privy Council proclamation was prefaced in a Crown proclamation: Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #482.
1562 Proposals for improvement of Rye harbour.13TNA, SP 12/23/95.
1563 Draft bill ‘for Reformacion of thorder and state of Merchants’ proposed to limit foreign trade to just nine ‘cities, towns, and ports’.14TNA, SP 12/27 A bill for Reformacion of thorder and state of Merchants, Jan 1563, f. 212-216. The tenor of this bill is similar to that of a detailed proposal made by John Johnson.15BL Lansdowne 110/61.
1563 ‘An Acte towching certayne Politique Constitutions made for the maintenance of the Navye’.16An Acte towching certayne Politique Constitutions made for the maintenance of the Navye, 5 Eliz. I, c.5 The foreign export of grain was to be limited to quays to be determined by later Proclamation (which apparently failed to materialise except in draft form and limited only to Hull and Bridlington, 22 Mar 1565); the Act also protected fishermen from being pressed into naval service, and authorised the export of fish without any payment of customs. From Michaelmas 1564, in order to encourage fishing, a penalty of £3 was introduced for eating meat rather than fish on Wednesdays. The restriction on the use of Hoys for foreign trade was relaxed.
Feb 1563 – 18 Dec 1564 A proclamation of 23 Mar 1564 prohibiting imports from the Low Countries marked an escalation in the trade war which had for 13 months seen English ships prohibited from trading in the Low Countries. A treaty of 18 Dec 1564 ending the prohibitions was extended in July 1566.17Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #521,537,546
31 Jul 1564 No vessel to sail without giving security, except trusted merchants, fishing vessels, passenger vessels, and licensed ships, on pain of piracy.18Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #526
29 Jan 1565 Establishment (by Proclamation) of the Exchequer Port Books.19This Proclamation was not noted by Steele or Hughes & Larkin. B.Y., A Sure Guide to Merchants, Custom-House Officers, &c., or the modern practice of the Court of Exchequer, (London: Tho. Worall, 1730), 406-446.
22 Mar 1565 Draft proclamation licensing export of grain from Hull and Bridlington only.20Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #532
Oct 1565 Commissions issued ‘for superintendence and care of the ports and havens of the realm, for the suppression of piracy, &c’, resulting in detailed surveys of ports and mariners.21TNA, SP 12/37 Warrant for commissions under the Great Seal, for superintendence and care of the ports and havens of the realm, for the suppression of piracy, &c., 6 Oct 1565, f. f.147; TNA, SP 12/37 Articles of instructions for suppressing pirates and other disorders, Oct 1565, f. f.149. Cases recorded in 'The booke touching Pyratts'22http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT7/SP12/135_%281579%29/ indicate that the term was indiscriminately applied to cases of customs evasion ('smuggling' was a term not used until the 1660s, according to OED, and even the term 'piracy' was of recent origin).
1565 Discussion of the ‘evils’ of the customs system.23TNA, SP 12/60, f.235.
20 Jan 1566 Prohibition of grain export continued.24Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #541
1566 ‘An Act touching Sea Marks and Mariners’,258 Eliz. I, c.13. which gave certain powers to the Trinity House Company, and authorised their licensees to work as Thames Watermen. The Act was reinforced and extended by patent in 1585 and 1594.26TNA C 66/1410, mm.11-12.
5 Nov, 13, 23 Dec 1566 The Commons considered a 'Bill for maintaining the havens in the Narrow Seas, between the Thames mouth and Portsmouth'.27TNA, SP 12/41 f.17; https://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol1/p76a; https://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol1/pp79-80#h3-0004; https://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol1/p81#h3-0007%5B/mfn%5D
23 Aug 1567 Announcement of Britian's first state lottery, intended to raise £200,000 for the repair of harbours and havens.27Dean, David. “Elizabeth's Lottery: Political Culture and State Formation in Early Modern England.” Journal of British Studies, vol. 50, no. 3, 2011, pp. 587–611. 14 Jul 1568 [SP 12/47 f.28] 'Measures necessary to promote the lottery'.
1567-73 Yarmouth haven re-created by a cut through the sand bar, the seventh since 1346.28David M. Dean, 'Parliament, Privy Council, and Local Politics in Elizabethan England: The Yarmouth-Lowestoft Fishing Dispute', Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies, 22, No.1 (1990), pp.39-64, 42; Neville Williams, The maritime trade of the East Anglian ports 1550-1590, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1988), 252; Henry Manship, A Booke of the Foundacion and Antiquitye of the Towne of Greate Yermouthe, (Great Yarmouth: Louis Alfred Meall, 1854), 78. In 1584 an export licence was granted to relieve the ongoing costs;29TNA C 66/__, mm.39-40 in 1594 the work was ‘almost finished’ but required the grant by patent of a remission in the town’s fee farm.30TNA C 66/1418, mm.17-19.
24 Jun 1568 The provision for export of fish without payment of customs was extended indefinitely, and Wednesdays were to continue as 'fishdays'.31Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #550
3 Aug 1569 ‘Former Proclamations have not entirely suppressed piracy. No ship to have any victual, &c., in any port unless well known there. No person to buy goods till they have passed the Customs, on pain of punishment for piracy’.32Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #563; R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), No. 640; These provision were continually reinforced, for example in 1580.33Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #654
6 Jun 1570 Pirates' are known to smuggle goods into the country 'by the fraud and greediness of some negligent officers in some small ports or creeks of the realm'. Such officers are to be imprisoned, and incorporations to be revoked if such officers cannot otherwise be deprived of their positions.34Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #573
1570 Proposal made for 'the issue of a base coinage to defray the charges for the reparation of harbours, havens, and castles throughout the kingdom, and particularly for the repair of Dover Haven'.35TNA, SP 12/75 f.185.
1570 Treatise by John Montgomery.36BL Add MS 18035. Included suggestion of the need to maintain and repair ports and havens, and to make rivers navigable. [Check date: Archaeologia, v.47 1 gives 1562; Investigate 1588 supplement at Northamptonshire Archives FH/N/A/0329]
1571 ‘An Acte that no Hoy or Plate shall crosse the Seas’, because ‘the marveylous Encrease of Hoyes’ had led to the ‘decay of Maryners and Shypes’.37An Acte that no Hoy or Plate shall crosse the Seas, 13 Eliz. I, c.15
1571 Act for the ‘better increase of Tyllage and for maintenance and increase of the Navye and Mariners of this Realme…’.38An Acte for the encrease of Tyllage and for the maintenance and increase of the Navye and Mariners of this Realme, 13 Eliz. I, c.13. A draft of this Act, together with Cecil’s annotations, survives (incorrectly dated) at TNA, SP 12/28 Bill for the better Increase of tillage and for mayntenaunce and increase of the navie and marryners of this Realme, 1563, f. 63. Foreign export of grain was to be limited to the ships of ‘English borne Subjects’. This followed a proclamation in 1569 ‘for maintenaunce of Tillage’, and was followed by a proclamation in September 1572 against all foreign export of grain.39R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), Nos. 637,676.
16 Sep 1572 Following the grant of licences earlier in the year, all grain export was prohibited.40Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #589
1572 ‘All ‘Frebutters’ [freebooters] are to leave Her Majesty’s ports at once and not to return… Any town where this happens to lose its charter [of incorporation], and the chief officer to be imprisoned’.41R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), Nos. 668.
30 Apr 1573 Trade with the Low Countries to be resumed following 'an intermission' occasioned by various arrests of shipping.42Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #595
1573 Proposals (by Thomas Coleshill?) for reformation of abuses in the customs (including newly-imposed officers’ fees),43TNA SP 12/151, f.8 in which the original legislation of 1559 was praised. It was argued that two tables should be hung in the Custom House ‘wherein should be wrytton both the howres and tymes the officers should give attendance and what fees and duties they ought to take of merchannts and shippers for every kinde of wrytinge and other thinge appertayning to their office’.
1573-75 Considerable increase in the tonnage of vessels commissioned with Royal Bounty subsidy.
3 Feb 1575 Collection of donations authorised for repair of Colyton harbour (Devon).44TNA C 66/1128; Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #603; R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), No. 692.
26 Oct 1575 Mariners prohibited from serving foreign powers as mercenaries, due to effects of merchandising and fishing. 45Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #609Corporate towns were again threatened with the confiscation of their charters if they failed to cooperate.
1575 Patent for collection for repair of pier at St Ives (Cornwall).46TNA C 66/1131.
1575 ‘Wherby the traffique of marchandise and trade of fysshing is at this present greatly hyndered’, all those serving ‘any forraigne prince … eyther as souldiers or Maryners, specially by sea’ are to ‘returne home to theyr accustomed occupation and trade of lyfe’.47Elizabeth I, 'The Queenes Maiestie vpon consyderations very great, … in the necessary trades of marchaundise, by sea faryng and fyshyng', (London: Richarde Lugge, 1575).
1576 Reports on the havens of Dover, Winchelsea, and Rye.48BL, Lansdowne MS 22/10. 7 Dec 1575 it had been reported that 'Mr. Cotton and Mr. Copley have sent one Lewis to view the havens from Dover to Lynn'.49TNA SP 70/136 f.94 A commission was to be drafted 25 Nov 1576 'for the repayring of the havens of Rye and Dover'.50TNA PC 2/11 f.105
1578 Collection of donations authorised for repair of Hastings harbour (Sussex).51TNA C 66/1167, mm.13-14; Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #631; R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), No. 726.
Mar 1579 or 1580 Proposals for licencing shipping and controlling traffic at havens and landing places to check piracy'.52BL Add. Mss 48126 f.150
20 Dec 1579 For the following 3 months anyone may import French wines, subject to payment of customs.53Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #645
1580 Collection of donations authorised for the repair of royal storehouses at Portsmouth (Hampshire).54R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), Nos.747,748
1580-81 An Acte for the repayring of Dover Haven' 23 Eliz. I c.6
1580-81 ‘An Acte for the increase of Mariners…’, 23 Eliz. I c.7, restricted foreign export of fish to domestic shipping, and restricted the import of foreign-cured fish to foreign shipping only and only on payment of additional customs duties.
1580-84 Patents for repair of harbour at King’s Lynn, and building a house of refuge for ‘decayed mariners’.55TNA C 66/1186, m.3; TNA C 66/1244, mm.38-40; TNA C 66/1239, mm.39-40.
1583 Grant of re-incorporation of the Newcastle Trinity House.56TNA C 66/1227, mm.7-11.
1583 Grant towards the repair of the piers of Sheringham and Beston, Norfolk.57TNA C 66/1228, mm.23-24.
1584 Unenacted bill ‘for the appointing of fair and convenient places for landing and shipping of merchandise’.58Stephen Gadd, 'Illegal quays: Elizabethan customs reforms and suppression of the coastal trade of Christchurch, Hampshire', The Economic History Review, 71, No.3 (2018), pp.727-746, 733.
1584 Licence granted towards repair of Chester harbour.59TNA, C 66/1243, mm.1-2.
1584 Unenacted bill ‘for the maintenance of Navigation’. Stated that earlier Acts ‘have bene very good Acts and greatly increased the Navie and Fishermen, and have caused many poore men to be sett a worke and are in a great likelyhood dayly to encrease the same more and more’.60Parliamentary Archives, PO JO/10/1/2 Draft of "An Act for the increase of mariners", 7 Dec 1584. The bill was committed in the Lords on 9th December and passed its third reading, but apparently lost when Parliament was prorogued on 21st, never receiving royal assent.61https://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol2/pp76-77 The 'Arguments for repeal of the Act for the increase of Mariners' at Folger L.d.1005 [https://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/059uk8] – undated but dateable from internal evidence to the period 21 Dec 1584 to 4 Feb 1585 (if 'assembly' is taken to mean 'session', otherwise 14 Sep 1586 to 29 Oct 1586 if taken to mean 'parliament') – declared that statutes were considered to have been entirely ineffective, with mariners, trade, shipping, and fishing all decayed. The 1581 Act was not repealed until 1597.
1585 Collection of donations authorised for repair of the harbours of St Ives (Cornwall), and Lyme (Dorset).62Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #675; R. Steele, v.1 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), Nos. 780,783. Levies were to be raised in Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset, Pembrokeshire and Glamorganshire, and in London, Exeter, Bristol, Gloucester, Southampton, Salisbury, and Ipswich: TNA C 66/1255, m.23. A bill for the Preservation of the Pier at Lyme Regis was lost on the prorogation of Parliament on 29 Mar 1585.63https://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol2/pp107-108
1585 Acts for the improvement of the harbours at Plymouth (Devon) and Chichester (Sussex).64Stephen Gadd, 'The emergence and development of statutory process for the compulsory purchase of land for transport infrastructure in England and Wales, c.1530-1800', Journal of Legal History, 40, No.1 (2019), pp.1-20, 16; An Acte for the bringinge of the Haven of the Cittie of Chichester by a newe cut Channell to the Suburbes of the same Cyttie, 27 Eliz. I, c.22; An Acte for preservacion of the Haven of Plymmowthe, 27 Eliz. I, c.20.
1585 Act for the Preservation of Orford Haven, 27 Eliz. I c.21; Act for the Repairing and Maintenance of the Seabanks and Seaworks on the Seacoast of Norfolk, 27 Eliz. I c.24.65https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000017915519&view=1up&seq=828
1585 Incorporation of Saltash (not noted in British Borough Charters) following petition regarding decay of the quay and the importance of the sea port.66TNA C 66/1265, mm.27-32.
16 Jun 1586 Collections were licensed for Gregory Pormote, who had lost nine ships because of a fire in Hull harbour.67Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #681
1586 Bill for Orford Haven rejected at Committee, but another was enacted the following year.68Simonds D'Ewes, The Journals of all the Parliaments during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, both of the House of Lords and House of Commons., (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1682), 411-418; J. Raithby, ed., The Statutes of the Realm, v.3 (London: Record Commission, 1817), 729; An Act for the preservacion of Orforde Haven in the Countie of Suffolk 27 Eliz. I, c.21. The harbour was said to have been made shallow by the continual standing of stallboats with fixed nets, hindering the tides and causing silting, but this was disputed in a petition of 14 April 158869TNA, SP 12/188 f.68. which claimed that the haven was ‘of as great depthe as in the memory of eny man it ever hathe byn’. In October 1587 it was still said to be ‘a large haven where ships of great burden commonly sail’ [Suffolk RO EE1/P4/2]. In 1580 the corporation had unsuccessfully petitioned for a Customs House, followed in 1586 by ‘depositions’ [Harley MS 368]; smuggling was a problem by 1592.70R.A. Roberts, ed., Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: 1596, v.6 (London: HMSO, 1895), 136. Contemporary map at Cotton Augustus I.i.f.64.
1587 Patent for upkeep of piers and sea-walls at Hull.71TNA C 66/1303, mm.15-16. This followed a petition in 1576: BL
9 Nov 1588 Prohibition of grain export.72Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #706
1589 Act for reviving and enlarging earlier Act for Dover Harbour, 31 Eliz. I c.13; Act for the Preservation of Orford Haven, 31 Eliz. I c.16
1589 It had been proposed to make a cut through the spit at Dunwich and Walberswick as early as 1435, and it was finally achieved in 1589.73Tom Johnson, 'The Tree and the Rod: Jurisdiction in Late Medieval England', Past & Present, 237, No.1 (2017), pp.13-51, 13; N. Williams, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1988), 250.
1589 Truro incorporated to allow advantage to be made of the repair of the Falmouth harbour.74TNA C 66/1334, mm.6-10.
1589/90 Inquisition as to the state of repair of the harbour and pier at Bridlington, which had been the subject of earlier enquiries and grants. This was followed by the grant of leases in 1591 and 1595 with duties to repair the harbour.75TNA E 178/2714; TNA C 66/1372, mm.33-36; TNA C 66/1442, mm.16-19.
12 Feb 1590 Collections licensed for Selsey Sea-Mark.76Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #719
8 Oct 1590 Prohibition of export of grain and beer.77Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #726
1591 Further grant towards the repair of the piers of Sheringham and Beston, Norfolk.78TNA C 66/1371, mm.43-44.
1591 Grant of incorporation of Lyme Regis included a 60-year extension to the 5 marks allowed annually for repair of The Cobb.79TNA C 66/1376, mm.1-6.
1592 Scheme for raising money for Rye Harbour.80BL Lansdowne MS 70/5; BL Lansdowne MS 67/35.
1594-1600 Another peak in the tonnage of vessels commissioned with Royal Bounty subsidy.
2 Oct 1595 Following raids by 'certain enemies to our realm … and esteeming very necessary the re-edifying, building, and erecting of decayed towns and places near the seaside for the preservation of this our realm, and especially such towns as are very near borderers upon the sea', collections were licensed in favour of the towns of Penzance, Mousehole, and Newlyn.81Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #775
21 Apr 1597 Embargo on shipping and seamen, 'in respect of the greate preparacions that are reported to be made in forreine partes'.82TNA PC 2/22 f.207
Dec 1597 The Bill for the re-edifying of Whitby-Haven had its second reading, and upon the several questions for the committing, or the ingrossing, was rejected'.83https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/jrnl-parliament-eliz1/pp566-577
Dec 1597 Bill for the encrease of Mariners and for maintenance of the Navigation, repealing a former Act made in the twenty third year of her Majesties Reign bearing the same title' (39 Eliz. I c.10) passed both Houses [https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/jrnl-parliament-eliz1/pp530-536] and was subsequently enacted [https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000017915502&view=1up&seq=158].
14 Jan 1600 Fishdays' to be enforced.84Paul L. Hughes and James Francis Larkin, Tudor royal proclamations, (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1964), #800
Dec 1601 Parliament considered 'An Act for the erecting and making of an Harbour and Key on the North Parts of Devon, in the River of Severne, for the Safeguard of Men and Shipping, and to the Publick Good of the Commonwealth'.85https://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol2/pp248-250#h3-0006